Stroke – A stroke (sometimes called a “brain attack”) occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is cut off. A stroke can be caused by blood clots or blood vessel breaks or ruptures in the brain, which deprives the brain of the required oxygen and glucose. The effects of the stroke depend on the extent to which, and the area of the brain that is damaged. Many people may experience communication and swallowing problems following a stroke. Communication impairments may affect the ability to speak, and / or the ability to understand and express language. In addition to communication impairments, an individual may also have cognitive and swallowing impairments.